The living standards of a population have a considerable impact on demographic behaviours. These have evolved in relation to processes, which have occurred several times over the course of history, and have been accompanied by the increase or reduction of inequalities among countries and/or different social classes. Given its complexity and multi-facet nature, the interaction between living standards and demographic phenomena can be approached from multiple perspectives. The 2021 triennial Sides conference aims to investigate some of these perspectives for past societies and to follow their evolution over time. In this regard, we have identified nine main themes on which we would like to solicit the reflection of scholars.